Consumption of watermelon significantly increased the plasma l -arginine levels. According to Wu et al. , supplementation of watermelon juice in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (a widely used animal model for non-insulin dependent diabetes) elevated the l -arginine levels, decreased the amount of glucose, free fatty acid, homocysteine, and methylarginines . On the other hand, it enhanced the activity of GTP cyclohydroxylase-1 and tetrahydrobiopterin levels in heart and acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation. In addition, Wu et al.  recommended the consumption of watermelon pomace juice as a functional food to combat diabetes and obesity based on their results in animal models.
The prominent symptom of non-insulin-dependent diabetes is the reduction in endothelial NO synthesis and bioavailability, increase in glucose concentration in plasma, free fatty acid, homocysteine, and methylarginines . Numerous studies suggest that the regulation of energy substrate oxidation, sensitivity to insulin and hemodynamics are influenced by NO in humans . For the synthesis of NO, l -arginine acts as the precursor which is converted by tetrahydrobiopetrin (BH4)-dependent NO synthase . Based on the results of various in vivo and in vitro studies, it has been demonstrated that the dietary intake of l -arginine decreased the glucose level in diabetic and obese rats [39,40,41]. In addition, the l -arginine enhanced the vascular reactivity in animal models [38,42,43] and hypercholesterol patients . Thus, owing to the numerous health benefits of l -arginine, it has been recommended to alleviate the risk of obesity and diabetes. However, direct intake of l -arginine displayed gastro-intestinal problems therefore diets enriched with l -arginine have become the alternative.
4. Anti-Ulcerative Colitis Property of Watermelon
Consumption of fruits and vegetables in regular diet provides several health benefits. The wide occurrence of phytochemicals such as carotenoids, lycopenes, anthocyanins, phenols, and flavonoids along with vitamins and minerals makes the choice of plant based diet healthier. It lowers the risks of various dreadful diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and aging associated ailments. Plants, being the wide source of pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites, provide diverse products in the form of fruits and vegetables loaded with nutraceutical potential. In general, the major role of secondary metabolites in plants are pertained to the protection against diverse abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition, secondary metabolites also acts as an antimicrobial agents and antioxidants to combat stresses.
3. Watermelon as a Functional Food in Obesity Management and Anti-Diabetic Snack
Watermelon is a notable horticultural crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family cultivated widely for its delicious fruits. Asian countries contribute approximately 81% of total production of watermelon worldwide . According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, a cultivation area of 3.2 million hectares was employed for the production of 103 million tons of watermelon worldwide in 2018 . The watermelon fruits are used for the preparation of smoothies, jams, sauces, candies, and juices. Watermelon serves as a vital natural source of l -citrulline (0.9 to 5 mg/kg of fresh fruit) . The refreshing taste, high water content, and its attractive colors ranging from red, yellow, and pink increases the consumption of watermelon. The diverse colors of watermelon are due to the presence of carotenoids especially, lycopene and β-carotene . The sweet taste of watermelon is contributed by the combination of sugars such as glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Moreover, watermelon, acts as a vital reservoir of valuable phytochemicals with high nutrition and pharmaceutical potentials. In particular, watermelon can be considered as an excellent functional food due to its rich lycopene, vitamin A, vitamin C contents and antioxidant potentials [3,4]. Bioactive compounds present in watermelon render numerous health benefits, such as decreasing the risk of cardio-vascular disease, aging related ailments, obesity, diabetes, and various cancer alleviating effects have been reported [5,6,7,8,9,10]. In 1930, Wada  determined and isolated citrulline, a non-essential amino acid from watermelon which is involved in the synthesis of arginine. The amino acid arginine is vital for the endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule involved in various neurological and immune responses in animals and humans . Watermelon acts as a vital dietary supplement to enhance the arginine content. In watermelon, citrulline aid in the tolerance against stresses such as drought . Moreover, the seeds of watermelon are enriched with protein, fat, and moderate levels of iron and zinc. Watermelon seeds are consumed as snacks, fat binder, soup thickener, condiments, and also for the extraction of cooking oil [14,15,16]. The occurrence of high arginine content in the seeds of watermelon adds its medicinal benefits . Due to the presence of various nutritious benefits the seeds of watermelon possess application in the field of several food products. Recently, Sola et al.  identified and quantified the phytochemicals in the methanol extracts derived from the seeds of watermelon. Furthermore, the report  evidenced the anti-bacterial property of watermelon seed extracts.
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91 Krypt Regular Seeds