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cannabis sativa l seeds

Cannabis sativa l seeds

What is Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil?

As a rich source of vitamin E, a powerful natural preservative and antioxidant, Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil helps strengthen the skin’s natural barrier so that valuable moisture remains locked-in and skin is protected against environmental stress factors.

What is hemp?

Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil is an herbaceous oil cold pressed from hemp seeds and has long been recognised for its use as a food and beauty ingredient. The use of Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil in skincare products has grown in popularity over the last few years as a result of an increasing consumer interest in using the power of plants in skincare formulations. This naturally green oil is composed of up to 90% omega fatty acids. Unlike CBD oil, Cannabis Sativa Seed Oil is mainly found in skincare products thanks to its powerful hydrating properties and abundant antioxidants.

Cannabis sativa l seeds

ALA: α-linolenic Acid; ALT: (SGPT) alanine-aminotransferase; AST: (SGOT) aspartate- aminotransferase; BMI: Body Mass Index; CVD: Cardiovascular Disease; EDSS: Extended Disability Status Score; FA: Fatty Acid; Cholesteryl ester; FVIIa: coagulation Factor VIIa; GGT: gamma-glutamyl transferase; GLA: γ-Linolenic Acid; HDL-C: High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol; LA: Linoleic Acid; LCPUFAs: Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; LDL-C: Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol; MS: Multiple Sclerosis; MUFAs: Monounsaturated Fatty Acids; OA: Oleic Acid; PAI-1: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PUFAs: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids; RBC: Red Blood Cell; RRMS: Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis; SDA: Stearidonic Acid; SFAs: Saturated Fatty Acids; TC: Total Cholesterol; TEWEL: trans-epidermal water loss; TG: Triglyceride.

the highest content group including different soy (Glycine max) cvs with a TIs content ranging from 43 to 84 U/mg of the sample;

As previously underlined, along with hypercholesterolemia, hypertension represent another main CVDs risk factor. It is defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) higher than 140 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) higher than 90 mmHg [138]. The in vitro studies which demonstrated the existence of hempseed peptides with anti-hypertensive properties (see Section 3.2.2) led some researchers to evaluate the in vivo hypotensive ability of hempseed products on the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). This animal model is characterized by high plasma ACE and renin enzyme activities as well as a decrease in the antioxidant defence and higher oxidative stress in comparison to the normotensive rats. It has been shown that a diet supplemented with 1% of hempseed proteins hydrolysate was effective both to prevent the hypertension development in SHRs and to act as treatment to reduce the SBP in SHRs with still established hypertension through the reduction of the plasma ACE activity [138]. Moreover, the same supplemented diet led also to a reduction of the oxidative stress in SHRs normalizing the plasma total antioxidant capacity, which reached a value similar to normotensive rats, and enhancing the cellular antioxidant defences, namely the catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes’ activity [117]. The anti-hypertensive and antioxidant effects were not so marked in the SHRs fed a diet supplemented with 1% hempseed protein isolate instead of the hempseed protein hydrolysate. This evidence was explained with the fact that the already hydrolysed peptides are more bioactive or more bioavailable than those obtained by the gastrointestinal digestion of hempseed proteins [117,138], suggesting the advantage of the use of hempseed protein hydrolysate rather than whole hempseed or hempseed proteins isolate as an ingredient to formulate functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Interestingly, the hypotensive effect of these hempseed products was not observed in normotensive rats, suggesting an action directly related to the higher ACE plasma activity than the physiological level [138].

The ability of the dietary hempseeds supplementation to reduce the dietary cholesterol uptake in the presence of an enriched-cholesterol diet, was observed also by Lee and co-workers [134] in Drosophila melanogaster and was attributed to the ability of some hempseed components, PUFAs LA and ALA in primis, to down-regulate the expression of the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) gene, coding for a key intestinal cholesterol absorption protein. By contrast, Prociuk and colleagues [135] found that 8 weeks of 10% hempseeds supplementation of a cholesterol-enriched diet in albino New Zealand rabbits did not decrease the cholesterol plasma level but led to an approximately 12-fold increase in the plasma GLA level, resulting in a normalization of the platelet aggregation. Indeed, it was shown that the enriched-cholesterol diet without hempseeds supplementation increased the cholesterol plasma level and the platelet aggregation, raising the risk of acute coronary syndrome. The addition of hempseeds to the diet was however able to inhibit the platelet aggregation despite the presence of high circulating cholesterol, and this effect was exactly attributed to the high GLA plasma level. All these results that showed an overall beneficial effect of hempseeds dietary supplementation on atherosclerosis are still in contrast to those found by Gavel and co-workers [136]. Indeed, they found, by investigating the effect of the addition of 10% hempseeds to the cholesterol-enriched diet of albino New Zealand rabbits on atherogenesis and aortic contractile function, that this dietary supplementation would not be able to protect the aortic vessel from the atherosclerotic plaque formation. In this case, the hempseeds supplementation provided only mildly beneficial effects against contractile disfunction associated with atherosclerotic vessel.

4.1. Animal Studies

Finally, in the US, the federal policy regarding hemp was significantly altered with the 2014 Farm Bill (Agricultural Act of 2014) that allowed the USDA and certain research institutions to grow hemp under an agricultural pilot program. Despite this act, industrial hemp continued to be a niche crop. The great novelty was four years later with the 2018 Farm Bill that has established a new federal hemp regulatory system under the USDA with the aim to facilitate the commercial cultivation, processing, and marketing of hemp and to essentially treat hemp like any other agricultural commodity. Indeed, it removed hemp (i.e., C. sativa L. varieties with a THC content <0.3% of the dry weight of leaves and flowering parts) and their products—among which is hempseed—from the statutory definition of the drug marijuana and the DEA schedule of controlled substances, opening the hemp industry for business [31]. 2018 was also the year in which the federal government of Canada legalized access to recreational cannabis (i.e., the drug-type C. sativa L.) through the entry into force of the Cannabis Act, Bill C-45 [40]. In Figure 3 , the main highlights about the C. sativa L. legislation in Canada, the US, the EU and Italy among the EU states, are illustrated.

Research about the hempseed proteins originated from the early 20th century and highlighted that the two main proteins of hempseed are the storage protein albumin, a globular protein, and edestin, a legumin. This latter is the most abundant component, constituting about 82% of total hemp protein content. It is a hexamer of about 300 KDa composed by six identical subunits, each of which is in turn made up of an acidic (AS) and a basic (BS) subunit with molecular weights of about 33.0 and 20.0 KDa, respectively, that are linked by one disulphide bond [67,68]. In addition to edestin, the other components that have been found were albumin components (13% of total protein) and β-conglycinin (a vicilin-like protein) (up to 5% of total protein), the presence of which has been recently confirmed also by Pavlovic and co-workers [38] and in a recent genome-wide study [69] in which two albumin and one vicilin-like encoding genes in addition to three edestin isoforms where identify, each encoded by a different gene, differing for the amount of sulphurated amino acids that are particularly abundant in the isoform-type 3. Nevertheless, in the report of Pavlovic and co-workers [38], the authors found that edestin amounted to about 65% of total hempseed proteins. This result is in line with what was found from the HPLC and MS/MS analysis performed by Mamone and colleagues [70], but it is less than what was obtained in the previous studies by Tang and colleagues [67] and by Wang and co-workers [68]. Moreover, these latter authors also found that the solubility of hempseed proteins at acidic pH was lower than that of soy proteins, and this may be due to the formation of covalent disulphide bonds among individual molecules of edestin, resulting in insoluble protein aggregates. Another physio-chemical property investigated was the thermal one. It was found that the denaturation temperature of hempseed proteins was 92 °C. This evidence is in agreement with what was observed by Raikos and colleagues [71] about the effect of heat treatment (80 °C or over) on the structural characteristics of hempseed proteins and consequently, on their digestibility. Indeed, high temperatures can lead the proteins to unfold and to expose their hydrophobic groups, favouring protein-protein interactions instead of the protein-water ones, and, hence, the formation of insoluble protein aggregates to which digestive enzymes cannot access. In this context, Wang and co-workers [68], investigating on the in vitro digestibility of hempseed protein isolates, had previously shown that untreated hempseed proteins were much more digestible compared to soy proteins. The high digestibility of hempseed proteins has been confirmed also by Mamone and colleagues [70], who observed that only a handful of peptides survived to an in vitro digestion process. On the contrary, Lin and colleagues [72] observed that heat pre-treatment on hempseed proteins at 100 °C for 15 or 30 min, improved their digestibility. The authors explained this evidence as a consequence of the improvement in the digestive enzymes’ bioaccessibility on target proteins through increased exposure of susceptible peptide bonds after protein unfolding.

Chemotype II has both the two main cannabinoids, CBD and THC, in a content ratio (CBD/THC) close to the unity (0.5–3.0), usually with a slight prevalence of CBD. This chemical phenotype is also named “intermediate type” or “THC-intermediate”, and the varieties belonging to this chemotype are mainly grown for medicinal use.

Table 7

Finally, saponins comprise a large family of structurally related compounds containing a steroid or triterpenoid aglycone (sapogenin) linked to one or more water-soluble oligosaccharide moieties. At larger quantities, these compounds are gastric irritants, and they can exert toxic properties causing haemolysis of red blood cells. However, at low doses, they may have a plasma cholesterol lowering effect in humans, as well as strong cytotoxic effects against cancer cell lines, and are important in reducing the risk of many chronic diseases [74]. The FAO/WHO established a safety limit of 12% of saponins for quinoa seeds which are among the main saponins’ plant sources [94]. Russo and Reggiani [73,75] found that the saponins amount in hempseed meal of different cvs was well below than 12%, and lower than other plant sources such as linseed and soy, despite the results they obtained from two separate studies being very different, with the level of saponins showed in one work [73] almost ten-fold higher than that obtained in the other work [75].

Hempseed oil unsaponifiable matter: phytosterol profile.